To finish off this series of “what is a…?” we are covering lesser known ostomies and their purposes. The definition of a stoma is an opening and any hollow organ can have an artificial opening which I was surprised to find there are a LOT of them!
First up we have a jejunostomy – is where a stoma is formed using the jejunum which is part of the small intestine, it is often formed following a bowel resection. Depending on how much jejunum is left before the stoma being formed the patient may suffer with short bowel syndrome and TPN (total parental nutrition) may be required. A jejunostomy is different to the jejunum feeding tube which is an alternative to a gastrostomy.
Next up we have a gastrostomy – which is an opening in the stomach for nutrition; most people often know this as PEG feeding or to give it it’s proper name percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy as this can be how a gastrostomy is created. The opening is usually created by an incision into the epigastrium (or above your belly button and below your rib cage, where you would do a Heimlich manoeuvre)
A nephrostomy– is a urinary diversion from the kidneys rather than a urostomy which is often replacing the bladder.
sophagostomy – these ostomies are in the… yep you guessed it esophagus!
holecystostomy – is an opening in the gallbladder often for drainage.
A choledochostomy – are ostomies in the bile ducts for drainage.
A cecostomy – this is an opening into the cecum which is the first part of the large intestine.
A duodenostomy – are ostomies that open directly into the duodenum; which is the first part of the small intestine.
An appendicostomy – an ostomy that goes in through the tip of the appendix which is attached to the large intestine (so if you don’t have your large intestine you don’t have your appendix!)
dacryocystorhinostomy – this one is a bit mental! These types of ostomies are openings between the lacrimal sac (which leads to the pink lump in your eye) and the nasal cavity.
A sclerostomy – this is an opening through the white outer layer of your eye (sclera) and is usually to give relief from glaucoma
A tracheostomy – this is the one that used to scare me as a kid and by that I mean growing up as a badger/cadet in 90’s St John’s Ambulance when being taught the principle of using the case of a biro to create an opening into the airways was the norm if someone had a blockage! Can I just point out we weren’t taught how to execute that procedure but the principle of it! But this ostomy allows people to be able to breathe either through a tube or by itself.
A ureterostomy – this is a type of urostomy where instead of the stoma coming out of or in place of the bladder the ureters are brought out to the surface of the skin away from the bladder.
A vesicostomy – or known as A suprapubic cystostomy / suprapubic catheter or an epicystostomy is a connection between the urinary bladder and the skin used to drain urine from the bladder into a leg bag.
The historical practice of trepanation (where they used to drill a hole into your skull) was also a type of stoma.
I hope you all found that as interesting as I did! I honestly feel like I have learnt an awful lot. If you didn’t catch our last instalment on colostomies click here.